Never even heard of copy by value and copy by reference until I started learning a bit about c++. Back then I was just coding in java without even knowing if the variable I was passing is pass by value or reference……or pointer. Learning this will change the way you analyze things and also help you design your program in a better way. Now the question is, is java pass by value, or by reference …….. or by pointer?(Hehe, just to add some twist here).

If you google it you will see a lot of articles about this. My goal is to help newbies to understand what is pass by value and what is pass by reference or pointer.

First things first

It should be clear that primitive types such as

  • boolean
  • byte
  • short
  • int
  • long
  • char
  • double
  • float

are all pass by value.

That means when create a variable int a = 42 , the variable a is stored in the memory together with its value.

But how about objects? Well objects are not primitive, so that means they are pass by……… reference or pointers? Hehe let’s find out.

What is pass by value?

A pass by value means that when you pass a primitive variable to a function, that variable is not pass but the value.


static class PassValue{
        void passMePrimivite(int number){
    public static void main(String [] args)

        PassValue passValue = new PassValue();
        int sample = 42;

Here, we are passing 42 on the passMePrimitive parameter. Keep in mind we are not passing the variable itself, instead we are passing the value. Thinking this way will save you a lot of headache.

What is the difference of a reference and a pointer?

What is a reference ?

  • A reference is sort of like an alias for a variable. Think of yourself as having a nickname(pretty sure you have one).
  • A reference shares the same memory space with variable, after all its only an alias
  • A reference can’t be null.
  • It can’t also be reassigned.

What is a pointer?

  • A pointer is a variable that is pointing to an object created somewhere in the memory.
  • A pointer can be null.
  • Can also be reassigned to a different variable
  • It has its own space on the memory.


Person p = new Person();

In here, you are you are declaring a pointer (p) with a type of Person pointing to the person object stored somewhere else in the memory. The key to understanding here is the keyword new. When you call new Person(), you are actually creating an object that will be stored somewhere in the memory. Keep this in mind.


So is java pass by pointer then?

Well kind of. The official java spec says java is Pass by value. Why is it so? Say for example

public static void main(String [] args)
        Person p = new Person("zelda");   // address 25
       changeValue(p) // here we are passing the value 25 which is the address.

        p = new Person("Link");   // address 10, p is now pointing to a new object somewhere in the heap with address of 10

    static  void changeValue(Person p){

Here, we create a pointer that is poiting to a Person object, and then we pass that pointer to the changeValue() with parameter of type Person. What we are actually passing is the actual address that our pointer p is pointing to(in our case it’s 25), to our changeValue(). Then next we point that pointer p ** to a new **Person object which is located somewhere in the memory(in our example, the address would be 10).


There is no such thing as a reference in java. Its only pointers and values but when you are passing some objects, it is the address value that is being pass.

Till next time, just code and wave.